Roman Army Bibliography
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Roman Army Bibliography - #

ŠT.R. Hobbs

This is a work in progress. Any suggestions for additions are welcome.
There are some duplications in the sections below because some works fit under more than one category.
Although this bibliography is intended as background to the New testament (1st and 2nd centuries CE) it does extend these limits. Items have been included from other periods before and after the New Testament where I think they add to our knowledge and understanding of the Roman army as an institution for new testament background.


Barker, P., The armies and enemies of Imperial Rome (Sussex 1981) 148p
Bennett, M. 'Warriors of Greece and Rome' in R. Holmes [ed.] The World Atlas of Warfare. New York: Viking Press, 1988:16-29.
Birley, E., The Roman Army: Papers, 1929-1986 Amsterdam: J.C. Gieben, 1988.
Bohec, Y. Le, L'armée Romaine (Paris 1989)
Brisson, J.-P. Problèmes de la guerre à Rome Paris: Mouton 1969.
Broughton, T.R.S. 'The Roman Army' in Foakes Jackson, F.J., Lake K. [eds.] the Beginnings of Christianity vol. 5. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, reprinted 1979: 427-445.
Campbell, B., The Roman Army: 31 B.C.-A.D. 337 London: Routledge 1994.
Campbell, D.B., 'The might of Rome' in: Cross, R. (ed.) Warfare: a chronological history (London 1991), 30-45.
Campbell, B., The Emperor and the Roman Army, 31 B.C.-A.D. 235 London: Routledge, 1984.
Connolly, P. The Roman Army. London: Macmillan Educational Press, 1975.
Connolly, P., Greece and Rome at War Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1981.
Connolly, P. 'The Early Roman Army' in J. Hackett [ed.] Warfare in the Ancient World. London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1989: 136-148.
Connolly, P. 'The Roman Army in the Age of Polybius' in J. Hackett [ed.] Warfare in the Ancient World. London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1989:149-168.
Crook, J. Consilium principiis: Imperial councils and counsellors from Augustus to Diocletian. Cambridge: CUP, 1955.
Dawson, D., The origins of Western warfare. Militarism and morality in the Ancient World (Oxford: OUP 1996).
Delbrück, H., History of the art of war, I: warfare in antiquity (Lincoln and London 1990)
Dixon, K.R. and P. Southern, The late Roman army (London 1996)
Dobson, B. 'The Empire' in J. Hackett [ed.] Warfare in the Ancient World. London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1989: 192-221.
Domaszewski, A. von, Aufsätze zur römischen Heeresgeschichte Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft 1972 [five long articles reprinted: incl. "Fahnen", "Religion", "Truppensold", "Principia", "Phlangen Alexanders...und Caesars Legionen"]
Elton, H., Warfare in Roman Europe, A.D. 350-425 Oxford: Clarendon 1996.
Feugère, M., Les armes des Romains (Paris 1993)
Feugère, M., 'Les armes romaines' Archéologia (1996):328-230
Fink, R. Roman military records on papyrus. Cleveland: CWRU Press, 1971.
Goldsworthy, A. K., The Roman Army at War, 100 B.C.--A.D. 200 Oxford: Clarendon 1997.
Grant, M., The Army of the Caesars New York: Scribners 1974.
Harris, W. V., War and Imperialism in Republican Rome, 327-70 B.C. Oxford: Clarendon 1979.
Humble, R. Warfare in the Ancient World. London: Cassell, 1980: 185-248.
Keegan, J., The Face of Battle London 1976.
Keegan, J. A History of Warfare. Toronto: Key-Porter Books, 1993. [passim].
Kennedy, D. 'The Roman Army' Anchor Bible Dictionary vol. 5:789-798.
Keppie, L. 'The Roman Army of the Later Republic' in J. Hackett [ed.] Warfare in the Ancient World. London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1989: 169-191.
Keppie, L., The Making of the Roman Army London: Batsford 1984 (Reprinted by Barnes & Noble 1994).
Le Bohec, Yves, The Imperial Roman Army Paris 1989; London 1994.
MacDowell, S. Late Roman Infantryman London: Osprey, 1994.
MacMullen, R. 'How big was the Roman imperial army?' Klio 62 1980: 451-460
Marin y Peña, M. Instituciones militares romanas Madrid 1956 [Enciclopedia clasica, II].
Matthews, R. Roman Soldiers, Hove: 1989.
Raaflaub, K., Rosenstein, N. [eds.] War and Society in the ancient and medieval world. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard UP, 1999.
Rich, J., and G. Shipley edd., War and Society in the Roman World. London: Routledge 1993 [Leicester-Nottingham Studies in Ancient Society, 5] 12 papers.
Sekunda, N., Northwood, S. Early Roman Armies. [Men at Arms #283] London: Osprey, 1995.
Sekunda, N. Republican Roman Army [Men at Arms #291]. London: Osprey, 1996.
Simkins, M., Youens, M., The Roman Army from Caesar to Trajan. [Men at Arms #46] London: Osprey, 1974.
Simkins, M. The Roman Army from Hadrian to Constantine [Men at Arms #93]. London: Osprey, 1979.
Simkins, M. Warriors of Rome. London: Osprey, 1988.
Speidel, M., Roman Army Studies, Volume I Amsterdam: J.C. Gieben 1984 [37 papers]; II 1992.
Sumner, G. Roman Army: Wars of the Empire. London: 1997.
Tomlin, R. 'The Late Roman Empire' in J. Hackett [ed.] Warfare in the Ancient World. London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1989: 222-249.
Treadgold, W. Byzantium and Its Army 284-1081. Stanford: 1995.
Visser, A.J.M. Romeins soldaat. Gorinchem: 1981.
Watson, G.R. The Roman Soldier. New York: Columbia University Press. 1969.
Webster, G., The Roman Imperial Army 3nd ed. Totowa, NJ: Barnes and Noble, 1985.
Whittaker, C. R., Frontiers of the Roman Empire. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins 1994.
Wierschowski, L. Heer und Wirtschaft. Bonn: 1984.
Windrow, M. Imperial Rome at War. Hong Kong: 1996.
Winkes, R. [ed.] The age of Augustus, Providence, RI: Brown University Press, 1986.


Aeneas, The defence of fortified positions
Ammanius Marcellinus, Rerum gestarum libri
Appian, Oberica
Arrian, Anabasis of Alexander I.
Asclepiodotus, Tactics
Caesar, de Bello Alexandrino
de Bello Africo
de Bello Civili
de Bello Gallico
de Bello Hispaniensis

Cassius Dio, Historia Romana
Cicero, Ad Familiares
Diodorus, Bibliotheca historica
Frontinus, Stratagemata
Heron, Bellopoeica
Homer, Iliad
Josephus F. de Bello Judaiorum
Livy, The History of Rome
Onasander, the General
Philon, Bellopoeica
Pliny the Younger, Epistulae
Plutarch, Julius
Polybius, Rise of the Roman Empire
Procopius Anecdota
Strabo, The geography
Suetonius, Augustus
Julius Caesar
Tacitus, Agricola
The Annals.

The Histories .
Vegetius, Epitoma rei militaris
Daris, S., Documenti per la storia dell' esercito romano in Egitto Milan 1964 [Pubblicazioni. Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Contributi. Serie terza, Scienze storiche 9.]
Fink, R. O., Roman Military Records on Papyrus Cleveland 1971 [APA Monograph 26.].
Gabba, E., Per la storia dell' esercito romano in età imperiale Bologna: Patron 1974.
Giuffrè, V., La letteratura "de re militari": Appunti per una storia degli ordinamenti militari Napoli: Jovene 1974.
Bendz, G. ed., Frontin. Kriegslisten Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft 1978.
De rebus bellicis: Part I: Papers ed. M.W.C. Hassall BAR International Series 63, 1979; Part II: Text ed. R.I. Ireland.
Lang, C. ed., Vegetius: Epitoma rei militaris Stuttgart: Teubner 1885 [1967].
Seeck, O. ed., Notitia Dignitatum Berlin 1876.


A. General

Gschnitzer, F. 'Das System des römischen Heeresbildung im zweiten punischen Krieg' Hermes 109 (1981): 59-85.
Lachman, K., Blume, F., Rudorf, A. Die Schriften der römischen Feldmesser 2 vols. Hildesheim: Ohlms, 1967 Reprint of 1848-1852 edition.
Mommsen, T. 'Das römische Militärwesen seit Diocletian' Hermes 24 (1889): 195-279.
Neumann, A.R. 'Das Militärhandbuch des Kaisers Augustus' Kio 16 (1933): 1-10.
Neumann, A.R. 'Das augusteisch-hadrainische Armeeregelment und Vegetius' Classical Philology 31 (1936): 14-16.
Neumann, A.R. 'Das römische Heeresregelment' Classical Philology 41 (1946): 217-225.
Speidel, M.P. 'Later Roman field army anmd the Guard of the High Empire' Latomus 46 (1987): 375-379.

B. Legions

Abranson, E., Roman legionaries at the time of Julius Caesar London 1979.
Birley, E., 'Alae named after their commanders' Ancient Society 9 (1978), 257-273.
Bohec, Y. Le, 'Vive la légion!' Latomus 50 (1991), 858-860.
Breeze, D. J., "The Organization of the Legion: The First Cohort and the Equites Legionis," Journal of Roman Studies 59 1969 50-55.
Breeze, D. J., "The Organization of the Career Structure of the immunes and principales of the Roman Army," Bonner Jahrbücher 174 1974 245-292.
Breukers, J., Het legioen (Heerlen 1992)
Dietz, K., 'Der Pollio in der römischen Legion' Chiron 15 (1985), 235-252.
Domaszewski, A. von, Aufsätze zur römischen Heeresgeschichte Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft 1972 [five long articles reprinted: incl. "Fahnen", "Religion", "Truppensold", "Principia", "Phlangen Alexanders...und Caesars Legionen"]
Dise, R.L., 'Trajan, the Antonines and the governor's staff' ZPE 116 (1997), 273-284.
Dise, R.L., 'Variation in Roman administrative practice: the assignments of beneficiarii consularis' ZPE 116 (1997), 284-299.
Eck, W., 'Zum Ende der legio IX Hispana' Chiron 2 (1972), 459- 462.
Holder, P. 'Legio II Parthica: A third century Legion' Military Illustrated 48 (1992): 18-23.
Junkelmann, M. Die Legionen des Augustus. Mainz: 1986.
Junkelmann, M. Equites Alae. Stuttgart: 1989.
Kennedy, D.L. 'Military cohorts: The evidence of Josephus BJ III.4.2 (67) and epigraphy' ZPE 50 (1983): 253-263.
Kennedy, D.L. 'Cohors XX Palmyrenorum' ZPE 53 (1983): 214-216.
Kennedy, L. 'Ala Phrygum and ala VII Phrygum' ZPE 118 (1997):300-304.
Keppie, L.J.F., "Legions in the East from Augustus to Trajan," The Defence of the Roman and Byzantine East ed. Philip Freeman and David Kennedy BAR International Series, 297i, 1986, 411-429.
Keppie, L.J.F. 'The fate of the ninth legion' BAR 553 (1989): 247-255.
Kertesz, I. 'The Roman cohort tactics - problems and development' Oikumene 1 (1976):89-97.
Lander, J., Parker, S.T. 'Legio IV Martia and the legionary camp at El-Lejjun' Byzantium 8 (1982: 185-210.
McMullen, R. 'The legion as society' Historia 33 (1984): 440-456.
Mann, J.C. 'The raising of new legions during the Principate' Hermes 91 (1963): 483-489.
Mann, J.C. Legionary recruitment and veteran settlement during the Principate. London: 1983.
Mann, J.C. 'Roman legionary centurial symbols' ZPE 115 91997): 295-298.
Miller, H.F. 'Legio I Adiutrix' Greece and Rome 32 (1985): 73-80.
Parker, H.M.D. 'The legions of Diocletian and Constantine' JRS 23 (1933): 175-189.
Parker, H.M.D. 'The antiqua legio of Vegetius' Classical Quarterly 16 (1932): 137-149.
Parker, H.M.D. The Roman Legions. revised edition Cambridge: CUP, 1958.
Pavkovicz, M.F. 'Singulares legati legionis: guards of a legionary legate or provincial governor?' ZPE 103 (1994) 223-228.
Peterson, D. Roman legions recreated in colour photographs. London: Windrow and Greene, 1992.
Peterson,, D. 'Roman legionaries recreated I-VI' Military Illustrated 47-51 (1992).
Rankov, N.B. 'Singulares legati legionis: a problem of interpretation' ZPE 80 (1990): 165-175.
Rengen, W. van, Baltby, J.C. Apamea in Syria: Winterkvartieren van Legio II Parthica Brussels: 1992).
Roth, J. 'The size and organization of the Roman imperial legion' Historia 43 (1994): 346-362.
Sander, E. 'Zur Rangordnung des römischen Heeres I' Historia 3 (1954): 87-105.
Sander, E. 'Zur Rangordnung des römischen Heeres II' Historia 8 (1959): 144-166.
Sanders, H.A. 'The origin of the third Cyrenaic legion' AJPh 62 (1941): 84-87.
Sasel, Kos, M. 'The XVth Legion at Emona' ZPE 109 (1995): 227-237.
Sastre Pats, I. 'Nueva inscripciion funeraria de un vet. leg VII G.F.' ZPE 125 (1999): 257-258.
Saxer, R., Untersuchungen zu den Vexillationen des römischen Kaiserheeres von Augustus bis Diokletian Köln: Boehlau 1967 [Epigraphische Studien, I]
Smith, F.W. 'The fighting unit: an essay in structural military history' L'Antiquité Classique 59 (1990): 149-165.
Spaul, J.E.H. 'Ala I Pannoniorum: One or many?' ZPE 108 (1995): 63-73.
Speidel, M.P. 'Legionary cohorts in Mauretania. The role of legionary cohorst in the structure of expeditionary armies' ANRW II:10:2 (1982): 850-860.
Speidel, M.P. 'The career of a legionary' TAPA 112 (1982) 209-214.
Speidel, M.P. 'The army at Aquileia' Saalburg Jahrbuch 43 (1990): 68-72.
Speidel, M.P. The Framework of the imperial legion. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1992.
Speidel, M.P. 'Legionary horsemen on campaign' Saalburg Jahrbuch 47 (1994): 36-39.
Tully, G.D. 'The stratarches of Legio VI Ferrata and the employment of camp prefects as vexillation commanders' ZPE 120 (1998): 226-232.
Veith, G. 'Die Taktik der Kohortenlegion' Klio 7 (1907): 303-334.
Wheeler, E.L. 'The Legion as Phalanx' Chiron 9 (1979): 303-318.
Zienkewicz, D. The Roman Legion. Caerleon: University of Wales Press, 1994.

C. Auxilia

Baillie Reynolds, P.K., The Vigiles of Imperial Rome Oxford 1926.
Cheesman, G.L., The auxilia of the Roman imperial army (Oxford: Clarendon Press 1914)
DeVijver, H., 'A new Roman auxiliary cohort in Egypt' ZPE 104 (1994), .
Durry, M., Les cohortes pretoriennes Paris 1938.
Frank, R.I., Scholae Palatinae. The Palace Guards of the Later Roman Empire Rome 1969.
Gilliam, J.F., ‘The appointment of auxiliary centurions’ TAPhA 88 (1957), 155-168.
Gilliver, C.M., 'Mons Graupius and the role of auxiliaries in battle' Greece and Rome 43 (1996), 54-67.
Holder, P.A. Studies in the auxiliaries of the Roman army from Augustus to Trajan Oxford: B.A.R., 1980.
Holder, P. A., Studies in the Auxilia of the Roman Army from Augustus to Trajan. Oxford BAR, 1980
Holder, P.A. 'Auxiliary units entitled Aelia; ZPE 122 (1998): 253-262.
Kennedy, D.L. 'Some observations on the Praetorian Guard' Ancient Society 9 (1978): 275-301.
Kennedy, D.L. 'The construction of a vexillation from the army of Syria' ZPE 61 (1985): 181- 185.
Rankov, B. The Praetorian Guard [Elite series #50]. London: Osprey, 1994.
Roxan, M.M., Weiss, P. 'Die Auxiliartruppen der Provinz Thraciai Chiron 28 (1998) 371-420.
Saddington, D.B. 'The development of the Roman auxiliary forces from Augustus to Trajan' ANRW II:3 (1975): 176-201.
Saddington, D.B. The development of the Roman auxiliary forces from Caesar to Vespasian 49 BC - AD 79. Harare: University of Zimbabwe Press, 1982.
Speidel, M.P. 'The rise of ethnic units in the Roman imperial army' ANRW II:3 (1975):202-231.
Speidel, M.P. Guards of the Roman Army .Bonn: 1978.
Speidel, M.P. 'The rise of mercenaries in the third century' Tyche 2 (1987): 191-201.
Stöver, H.D. Die Prätorianer. Munich: 1994.
Wolff, H. 'Zu den Bürgerrechtsverliehungen an Kinder von Auxiliaren und Legionaren' Chiron 4 (1974): 478-510.

D. Cavalry

Clutton-Brock, J. 'Cavalry in Ancient Rome' in Horse Power: A History of the horse and Donkey in Human Societies. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard UP, 1992: 113-117.
Dixon, K. R. and P. Southern, The Roman Cavalry London 1992.
Eadie, J.W., 'The development of Roman mailed cavalry' JRS 57 (1967), 161-173.
Hyland, A., Training the Roman Cavalry: From Arrian's Tactica Alan Sutton 1993 .
Hyland, A., Equus: The Horse in the Roman World London 1990.
Junkelmann, M. Die Reiter Roms I-III. Mainz: 1991-1992.
Junkelmann, M. Reiter wie Statuen aus Erz. Mainz: 1996.
MacDowell, S. Late Roman Cavalryman. London: Osprey, 1995.
Rea, J.R. 'A cavalryman's career' ZPE 56 (1984): 79-88.
Saddington, D.B. 'A context for the dedication of five cavalry regiments' ZPE 104 (1994): 73-77.
Speidel, M.P. 'Stablesiani: The raising of new cavalry units during the crisis of the Roman empire' Chiron 4 (1974): 541-546.
Speidel, M.P. 'The prefect's horse guards and the supply of weapons in the Roman army' Proceedings of the XVI International Congress of Papyrology. Chicago: CUP, 1981:405- 409.
Speidel, M. P., Riding for Caesar: The Roman Emperors' Horse Guards Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1994.
Speidel, M. P. Die Denkmäler der Kaiserreiter Bonn 1993.
Speidel, M.P. 'A horseguardsman in the war between Licinius and Constantine' Chiron 25 (1995): 83-87.
Tausend, K. 'Caesars germanische Reiter' Historia 37 (1988): 491-497.

E. Officers, Centurions, Optiones

Baillie Reynolds, P.K., "The Troops quartered in the Castra Peregrinorum," Journal of Roman Studies 13 1923 168-189.
Best, E.E., 'The literate Roman soldier' The Classical Journal 62 (1966), 122-127.
Birley, E., "Alae and Cohortes Milliariae, " Corolla Memoriae Erich Swoboda ded. Graz 1966 54-67.
Birley, E., "The Origins of Legionary Centurions," Roman Britain and the Roman Army Kendal 1953.
Breeze, D., "Pay Grades and Ranks below the Centurionate," Journal of Roman Studies 61 1971 130-135.
Breeze, D. J., "The Career Structure below the Centurionate during the Principate," Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt II.1Berlin/NY 1974 435-451.
Breeze, D.J., 'The organisation of the career structure of the immunes and principales of the Roman army' BJ 174 (1974), 245-292.
Breeze, D.J., 'A note on the use of the titles Optio and Magister below the centurionate during the principate' Britannia 7 (1976), 127-133.
Davies, R.W., "The Daily Life of the Roman Soldier under the Principate," Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt II.1 Berlin/NY 1974 299-338: "Duties of Officers and Men," 305-310; "Administration," 312-314.
DeVijver, H., 'Les 'militiae equestres' de P. Helvius Pertinax' ZPE 75 (1988), 207-214.
Dobson, B., 'Legionary centurion or equestrian officer? A comparison of pay and prospects' in: Ancient Society 3 (1972), 193-208.
Dobson, B., 'The significance of the centurion and 'primipilaris' in the Roman army and administration' ANRW 2.1 (1974), 393-434.
Dolata, J., 'Promotio militaris- die Beförderung eines ritterlichen Offiziers' Klio 77 (1995), 255- 265.
Clauss, M., Untersuchungen zu den principales des römischen Heeres von Augustus bis Diocletian: COrnicularii, Speculatores, Frumentarii Diss. Rhur-Universität; Bochum 1973, 17-40; 46-55; 59-77; 82-113 [U 35 .C574u].
Devijver, H., "Equestrian Officers from the east," The Defence of the Roman and Byzantine East ed. Philip Freeman and David Kennedy BAR International Series, 297i, 1986, 109- 225.
Devijver, H., "The Roman Army in Egypt with special reference to the Militiae Equestres," Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt II.1 Berlin/NY 1974 452-492, especially 459-464.
Devijver, H., The Equestrian Officers of the Roman Army 2 vols. Amsterdam 1989, 1992.
Dobson, B., "The Centurionate and Social Mobility during the Principate,"
Dobson, B. and Breeze, D., "The Rome Cohorts and the Legionary Centurionate," Epigraphische Studien 8 1969 100-124 [DD 53 .A2E64 no.8]
Dobson, B., "The Significance of the Centurion and 'Primipilaris' in the Roman Army and Administration," Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt II.1 Berlin/NY 1974 392- 434.
Domaszewski, A. von, Die Rangordnung des römischen Heeres 2nd ed. edited by Brian Dobson 1968.
Domaszewski, A. von, Aufsätze zur römischen Heeresgeschichte Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft 1972 [five long articles reprinted: incl. "Fahnen", "Religion", "Truppensold", "Principia", "Phlangen Alexanders...und Caesars Legionen"]
Gilliam, J.F., 'The ordinarii and ordinati of the Roman army' TAPhA 71 (1940), 127-148.
Gilliam, J.F., ‘The appointment of auxiliary centurions’ TAPhA 88 (1957), 155-168.
Glay, M Le, 'Le commandement des cohortes voluntariorum de l'armée romaine' Ancient Society 3 (1972):209-222.
Mann, J.C. 'The organization of the frumentarii' ZPE 74 (188) 149-150.
Osier, J. 'The emergence of third-century equestrian military commanders' Latomus 36 (1977): 674-687.
Rankov, N.B. 'Frumentarii, the Castra Peregrina and then provincial officia' ZPE 80 (1990): 176- 182.
Rea, J.R. 'Ordinatus' ZPE 38 (1980): 217-219.
Speidel, M.P. 'Dux, praepositus' ZPE 36 (1978): 263-278.
Speidel, M.P. 'Princeps as a title for ad-hoc commanders' Britannia 12 (1981): 7-13.
Speidel, M.P. 'Centurions promoted from beneficiarii?' ZPE 91 (1992): 229-232.
Speidel, M.P. 'A tribune's choice in the promotion of centurions' ZPE 100 (1994): 469-470.
Speidel, M.P. 'A guardsman as officer of irregulars' ZPE 103 (1994): 215-216.
Stein, E. 'Ordinarii et campidoctores' Byzantion 8 (1933): 379-387.
Stoll, O. 'Offizier und Gentleman: der römische Offizer als Kultfunktionär' Klio 80 (1998): 134- 162.
Tomlin, R.S.O. 'Seniore-iuniores in the Late Roman field army' AJP 93 (1972): 253-278.

F. Machines and Equipment

Bishop, M.C. & Coulston, J.C.N. Roman Military Equipment London: Batsford, 1993.
Campbell, D.B., 'Auxiliary artillery revisited' Bonner Jahrbücher 186 (1986), 117-132
Coulston, J.C.N., 'Three legionaries at Croy-Hill' in: J.C. Coulston (ed.), BARi 394: Military equipment and the identity of Roman soldiers (Oxford 1988), 1-29.
Coulston, J.C.N., 'The value of Trajan's column as a source for military equipment' in: C. van Driel-Murray (ed.), BARi 479: The sources of evidence (Oxford 1989), 31-44.
Coulston, J.C.N., 'Later Roman Armour' JRMES 1 (1990), 139-160.
Fuentes, N., 'The Roman military tunic' in: M. Dawson (ed.), BARi 336: Roman military equipment: the accoutrements of war (Oxford 1987), 41-71.
Gilliver, C.M., 'Hedgehogs, caltrops and palisade stakes' JRMES 4 (1993), 49-54.
Gonen, R. Weapons of the Ancient World. London: Cassell, 1975.
Iriarte, A. 'Reconstructing the iron core from the Deume helmet' JRMES 113 (1996): 51-57.
Kiechle, F.M. 'Der Entwicklung der Brandwaffen im Altertum' Historia 26 (1977): 253-256.
Kleiner, F.S. 'The sacrifice in armour in Roman art' Latomus 42 (1983): 287-302.
MacMullen, R. 'Inscriptions on armour and the supply of arms in the Roman empire' American Journal of Archaeology 64 1960: 23-40..
Marchant. D. 'Roman weapons in Great Britain, a case study' JRMES 1 (1990): 1-6.
Marsden, E. W., Greek and Roman Artillery: Historical Development. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1971.
Miller, M.C.J. et al. The fortification of the Roman Camp. Chicago: CUP, 1994.
Pflug, H. Antike Helm. Bonn: 1989.
Richmond, I.A. 'The Roman Siegeworks at Masada, Israel' JRS 52 91962): 142-155.
Robinson, H.R. 'Problems of reconstructing Roman Armour' BJ 172 (1972): 24-35.
Robinson, H.R. The armour of imperial Rome. London: 1975.
Roth, J. The logistics of the Roman army in the Jewish war. PhD dissertation, Columbia University, 1990.
Salvatore, J.P. 'Roman tents replicated in stone-built barracks in Spain' JRMES 4 (1993): 23-31.
Sander, E. 'Der Kleidung der römischen Soldaten' Historia 12 (1963): 239-247.
Shean, J.F. 'Hannibal's Mules' Historia 45 (1996): 159-187.
Stephenson, I.P. Roman military equipment (Stroud: 1999).
Stoll, O. 'Die Fahnenwache in der römischen Armee' ZPE 108 (1995): 107-118.
Thomas, J.D., Davies, R.W. 'A new military strength report on papyrus' Journal of Roman Studies 67 1977: 50-61.
Webster, G. 'Standards and standard-bearers in the Roman army' BJ 186 (1986): 105-115.
Woods, D. 'The ownership and disposal of Roman military equipment in the Late Roman army' JRMES 4 (1993): 37-50.

G. Military Diplomas
Military diplomas are documents, such as gravestones, and other inscriptions giving details of a soldier's life, or a units organization and history.

Nollé, J. 'Militärdiplom für einen in Britannien entlassen 'Daker'' ZPE 117 (1997): 269-276.
Roxan, M.M. Roman Military Diplomas London: 1978.
Roxan, M.M. 'Roman military diplomas' Minerva (1995).
Schindel, N. 'Zwei neue Militärdiplome aus der Provinz Moeisia-Superior' Tyche 13 (1998): 221- 227.
Stylow, A.U. 'Ein neues Militärdiplom von 133' Chiron 24 (1994): 83-94.
Weiss, P. 'Neue Militärdiplome' ZPE 117 (1997): 227-268.
Weiss, P. 'Ein Diplom des Antoninus Pius fuur Moeisia Inferior' ZPE 124 (1999): 279-286.
Weiss, P. 'Weitere Dilpomfragmente von Moeisia Inferior' ZPE 124 (1999): 287-291.


Birley, A., The People of Roman Britain Berkeley/LA: U. Cal. 1980 72-96.
Brunt, P. A., "Conscription and Volunteering in the Roman Imperial Army," Scripta Classica Israelica 1 1974 90-115 [a copy at UCLA: PA 1 .S434 v.1].
Brunt, P.A., Italian Manpower, 225 B.C.--A.D. 14 Oxford 1971, 473-512;625-635.
Dobson, B. and Mann, J., "The Roman Army in Britain and Britons in the Roman Army," Britannia 3 1973 191 ff.
Forni, G., Il reclutamento delle legioni da Augusto a Diocleziano Milano/Roma 1953.
Forni, G., "Estrazione etnica e sociale dei soldati delle legioni nei primi tre secoli dell' Impero," Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt II.1 Berlin/NY 1974 339-391.
Fries, H., Die Cohortes Urbanae Köln 1967 [Beihefte der Bonner Jahrbücher, 21]
Grenier, A., "Le recruitment des legionnaires romaines en Narbonnaise," Bulletin de la Société des Antiquaires de France 1956, 35 ff.
Holder, P. A., The Auxilia from Augustus to Hadrian Oxford: BAR, 1980: 5-6; 16-18; 66-68.
Kraft, K., Zur Rekruitierung der Alen und Kohorten an Rhein und Donau berne 1951 [Dissertationes Bernenses, I,3.].
Mann, J.C., "The Raising of New Legions during the Principate," Hermes 91 1963 483-489.
Mann, J.C. Legionary recruitment and veteran settlement during the Principate. London: Inst. of Arch. University of London, 1983.
Mann, J.C., Roxan, M.M. 'Discharge certificates of the Roman army' Britannia 13 (1982): 1-23.
Mann, J.C. 'The raising of new legions during the Principate' Hermes 91 1963: 483-489.
Mommsen, Theodor, "Die Conscriptionsordnung der römischen Kaiserzeit," Hermes 19 1884 1-79 and 210-234 [=Gesammelte Schriften VI 1910 20-117].
Neumann, A.R. 'Römische Rekreutenausbildung im Lichte der Diziplin' Classical Philology 43 (1948): 157-173.
Parker, H.M.D., The Roman Legions Oxford 1928 169-186.
Sasel, J., "Zur Rekruitierung der Prätorianer," Historia 21 1972 474 ff.
Scheidel, W. 'Inschriftenstatistik und die frage des Rekruteirungsalter römischen Soldaten' Chiron 22 (1992): 281-297.
Scheidel, W. 'Rekruten und Überlebende: Die demographische Struktur der römischen Legionen' Klio 77 (1995): 232-254.
Simpson, G., Britons and the Roman Army London 1964.
Sotgiu, G., "Sardi nelle legioni e nella flotta romana," Athenaeum 39 1961 78-97.
Speidel, M., "Legionaries from Asia Minor," Roman Army Studies I 1984 45-63.


A. General

Bolin, S. State and currency in the Roman empire to 300 AD. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksells, 1958.
Brunt, P. A., "The 'Fiscus' and its Development," Journal of Roman Studies 56 1966 75-91.
D'Arms, J.H. Commerce and social standing in ancient Rome. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard UP, 1981.
Duncan-Jones, R. Structure and scale in the Roman economy. Cambridge: CUP, 1990.
Hopkins, K. 'Taxes and trade in the Roman empire 200 BC - 400 AD' Journal of Roman Studies, 70 1980:101-125.
Howgego, C. 'The supply and use of money in the Roman world, 200 BC - 300 AD' Journal of Roman Studies. 82 1992: 1-31.
MacMullen, R., "The Emperor's Largesses," Latomus 21 1962 154-166.
MacMullen, R., "The anabolicae species," Aegyptus 38 1958 184 ff .
MacMullen, R. 'Tax-pressure in the Roman empire' Latomus 46 1987: 737-754.
Millar, F., "The Fiscus in the First Two Centuries of the Empire," Journal of Roman Studies 53 1963 29-42.
Nicolet, C. Rendre à César: Economie et société dans le Rome antique. Paris: Gallimard, 1988.
Rickman, G., The Corn Supply of Ancient Rome Oxford 1980.

B. Military

Alston, R. 'Roman Military Pay from Caesar to Diocletian' Journal of Roman Studies 84 1994: 113-123.
Berchem, D. van, "L' annone militaire," Mémoires de la société nationale des antiquaires de France 8e série, 10 1937 117-202.
Boren, H.C., ‘Studies relating to the stipendium militum’ Historia 32 (1983), 427-460.
Brunt, P. "Pay and Superannuation in the Roman Army," Papers of the British School at Rome 18 1950, 50-71.
Corbier, M., "L' aerarium militare," in Armées et Fiscalité dans le monde antique Paris: Editions du CNRS 1977 197-234.
Develin, R., "The Army Pay Rises under Severus and Caracalla, and the Question of annona militaris," Latomus 30 1971 687-695.
Domaszewski, A. von, Aufsätze zur römischen Heeresgeschichte Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft 1972 [five long articles reprinted: incl. "Fahnen", "Religion", "Truppensold", "Principia", "Phlangen Alexanders...und Caesars Legionen"]
Duncan-Jones, R.P., 'Pay and numbers in Diocletian's army' Chiron 8 (1978), 541-560.
Fink, R. O., Roman Military Records on Papyrus, pp. 241-276.
Jahn, J. 'Der Sold römischer Soldaten' ZPE 53 (1983): 217-227.
Junkelmann, M. Panis militaris (Mainz: 1997)
MacMullen, R. 'The Roman emperor's army costs' Latomus 43 1984: 571-580.
MacMullen, R. 'A note on the numeri' Hermes 82 (1954): 501-506.
Marichal, R., "La solde des armées romaines d' Auguste à Séptime Sevère d' après les P.Gen. Lat. 1 et 4 et P. Berlin 6. 866," Mélanges...Isidore Levy Bruxelles 1955, 399-421.
Nicoletti, A., "I prefetti del pretorio e la riscossione dell' annona militare," Labeo 15 1969 177-187.
Speidel, M., "The Pay of the Auxilia," Journal of Roman Studies 63 1973 141-147. [Roman Army Studies I, pp. 83-89.].
Speidel, M.A. 'Roman army pay-scales' Journal of roman Studies 82 (1992): 87-106.
Speidel, M.A. 'Roman soldier's pay' Minerva (1993): 26-27.
Starr, C. G. The Roman Imperial Navy, pp. 81-83.
Watson, G.R., "Documentation in the Roman Army," Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt II.1 1974 493-507.
Watson, G.R., "The Pay of the Roman Army: Suetonius, Dio and the quartum stipendium," Historia 5 1956 332-340.
Watson, G.R., "The Pay of the Roman Army: The Auxiliary Forces," Historia 8 1959 372-378.
Watson, G. R., "The Birdoswalt Hoard: the Pay and the Purse,"Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmoreland Society 54 1955 61-64.


Alston, R., Soldier and Society in Roman Egypt: A social History London: Routledge, 1995.
Astin, A., Scipio Aemilianus Oxford.
Balty, J.C. and Van Rengen, W., Apamea in Syria: The Winter Quarters of Legio II Parthica. Roman Gravestones from the Military Cemetery Brussels 1993
Birley, A.R. 'The senatorial career under the Principate' The fasti of Roman Britain. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1981. 4-35.
Birley, E., Roman Britain and the Roman Army Kendal 1953.
Birley, E., "Noricum, Britain and the Roman Army," Festschrift fuer Rudolf Egger I Klagenfurt 1952 175-188.
Breeze, D. J., "Pay Grades and Ranks below the Centurionate," Journal of Roman Studies 61 1971 130-135.
Davies, R., Service in the Roman Army ed. David Breeze and Valerie Maxfield NY: Colombia UP 1989
Davies, R., "The Supply of Animals to the Roman Army and the Remount Systems," Latomus 27 1968 75-95.
Davies, R., "The Roman Military Diet," Britannia 2 19 122-142.
Davies, R.W., "The Daily Life of the Roman Soldier under the Principate," Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt II.1 Berlin/NY 1974 299-338: "Duties of Officers and Men," 305-310; "Administration," 312-314.
DeBeer, G., Hannibal
Develin, R. "The Army Pay Rises under Severus and Caracalla and the question of the annona militaris," Latomus 30 1971 687-695.
Domaszewski, A. von, "Die Annona des Heeres im Kriege," Epitymbion Heinrich Swoboda dargebracht Reichenberg 1927 17-18.
Domaszewski, A. von, Aufsätze zur römischen Heeresgeschichte Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft 1972 [five long articles reprinted: incl. "Fahnen", "Religion", "Truppensold", "Principia", "Phlangen Alexanders...und Caesars Legionen"]
Fentress, E W.B., Numidia and the Roman Army BAR International Series, 53, 1979.
Fitz, Jeno, "A Military History of Pannonia from the Marcomann Wars to the Death of Alexander Severus," Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 14 1962 25-112.
Forni, G., 'Estrazione etnica e sociale dei soldati delle legioni nei primi tre secoli dell'imperio' in: ANRW 2.1 (1974), 339-391.
Ginsburg, M., "Roman Military Clubs and their Social Functions," Transactions of the American Philological Association 71 1940 149-156.
Haldon J. Warfare, state and society in the Byzantine world (London: Routledge , 1999).
Hammond, Mason, "Corbulo and Nero's Eastern Policy," Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 45 1934 81-104.
Huzar, E. G., Mark Antony: A Biography Minneapolis: UMinn 1978.
Isaac, B. 'The meaning of limes and limitanei in ancient sources' Journal of Roman Studies 78 1988: 125-147.
Isaac, B. The limits of empire: The Roman imperial army in the east. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2nd ed. 1992.
Johnson, A., Roman Forts NY 1983.
Jones, R.F.J. 'The military occupation of north-west Spain' Journal of Roman Studies 66 1976: 45-66.
Kennedy, D.L. [ed.] The Roman army in the East. Ann Arbor: Journal of Roman Archaeology, 1996.
Lee, A.D. Information and Frontiers: Roman foreign relations in late antiquity. Cambridge: CUP, 1993.
Levick, B., "Caracalla's Path," Hommages à Marcel Renard II Bruxelles 1969 426-446.
Lintott, A. Violence in Republican Rome. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2nd edition, 1999.
MacMullen, R., Soldier and Civilian in the Later Roman Empire Cambridge: Harvard 1966.
MacMullen, R., "The Legion as Society," Historia 33 1984 440-456.
Nicoletti, A., "I prefetti del pretorio e la riscossione dell' annona militare," Labeo 15 1969 177-187.
Pflaum, H. G., Essai sur le cursus publicus sous le Haut-Empire romain Paris 1940.
Rickman, Geoffrey, Roman Granaries and Store Buildings Cambridge 1971.
Smith, R.E., Service in the post-Marian Army Manchester: MUP 1958.
Tomlin, R.S.O. 'Rome's decline and fall' Cross, R. [ed.] Warfare: A Chronological History London: 1991.
Watson, G.R., The Roman Soldier London 1960; Ithaca: Cornell .

B. Awards and Decorations

Antonaras, A.and P.M.Nigdelis, 'Ein neues Militaerdiplom im Museum byzantinischer Kultur von Thessaloniki' in: Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 121 (1998), 283-286.
Maxfield, V., The Military Decorations of the Roman Army Berkeley: UCal 1981.


A. Strategy and Campaigns

Caven, B., The Punic Wars London: Weidenfield & Nicholson 1980.
Corbulo and the Parthian War A. D. 58-66. texts & translations
Dodd, C.H., "The Chronology of the Eastern Campaigns of the Emperor Lucius Verus," Numismatic Chronicle 4th series 11 1911 209-267.
Dodgeon, M.H. & Lieu, S.N.C., The Roman Eastern Frontier and the Persian Wars, A.D. 226- 363. A Documentary History London: Routledge1991.
Drexler, F.W., Caracalla's Zug nach dem Orient und der letzte Partherkrieg 214-217 Halle 1880.
Ferrill, A. 'The grand strategy of the Roman empire' in Kennedy, P. [ed.] Grand strategies in war and peace. New Haven: Yale UP, 1991: 71-85.
Gichon, M., 'Aspects of a Roman army in war according to the Bellum Judaicum of Josephus' in: P.Freeman and D.L. Kennedy (ed.), The defence of the Roman and Byzantine East (Oxford 1986), 287-310.
Gichon, M., 'Reflections on the lorica according to the Bellum Iudaeicum of Josephus' Arma (1993), 10-12.
Guey, J., Essai sur la guerre parthique de Trajan 114-117 Bucharest 1937.
Krentz, P., Wheeler, E.L. [eds.] Strategems of War by Polyaenus. 2 vols. Chicago: Ares, 1994.
Kromayer, J. & Veith, G. Heerwesen und Kriegführung der Griechen und Römer München 1928.
Lazenby, J.F., Hannibal's War London: Aris & Phillips 1978.
Lazenby, P. The First Punic War London: Aris and Phillips, 1996.
Lepper, F.A., Trajan's Parthian War Oxford 1948.
Luttwak, A. The grand strategy of the Roman empire. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1976.
Mor, M., "The Roman Army in Eretz-Israel in the Years AD 70-132," The Defence of the Roman and Byzantine East ed. Philip Freeman and David Kennedy BAR International Series, 297ii, 1986, 575-602.
Mitchell, S. ed., Armies and Frontiers in Roman and Byzantine Anatolia Oxford: B.A.R., 1983.
Pelling, C.B.R. 'Pharsalus' Historia 22 (1973): 249-259.
Schmidtt, O. 'Anmerkungen zum Bataveraufstand' BJ 193 (1993): 141-160.
Scullard, H. H., Scipio Africanus in the Second Punic War 2nd ed. London 1970.
Stewart, I. 'Mathematical recreations: Defend the Roman empire' Scientific American Dec (1999) 94-96.
Teitler, H. Die opstand der 'Batavieren' Hilversum: 1998.
Thompson, E.A. Early Germanic Warfare Oxford: OUP, 1965.
Webster, G., Rome against Caratacus: The Roman Campaigns in Britain, A.D. 48-58 Totowa NJ: Barnes & Noble 1982.

B. Tactics

Campbell, J.B. 'Teach yourself how to be a Roman general' Journal of Roman Studies. 77 1987:13-29.
Kern, P.B. Ancient Siege Warfare Bloomington: University of Indiana Press, 1999.
Lammert, F. 'Die römische Taktik' Philologus Supplement 23:II (1932): 1-61.
MacDonald, F. A Roman Fort. Hove: 1993.
Nilsson, M.P. 'The introduction of hoplite tactics at Rome' JRS 19 (1929): 1-11.
Veith, G. 'Die Taktik der Kohortenlegion' Klio 7 (1907): 303-334.
Wheeler, E.L. 'The occasion of Arrian's Tactica' GRBS 19 (1979): 351-365.
Ziolkowski, A. 'Urbs direpta: Or, How the Romans sacked cities' in Rich et al. [eds.] War and society in the Roman world, 19-91.

C. Frontiers

Adams, J.P., "The Roman Imperial Army in the East: Social and Governmental Problems," The Ancient World 2.4 1979 129-137.
Appelbaum, S. 'Jews and Service in the Roman Army' in Roman Froniter Studies Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv University Press, 1971: 181-184.
Baatz, D., Der römische Limes. Archäologische Ausflüge zwischen Rhein und Donau (Berlin 1975) 308p.
Baatz, D., Die Wachttürme am Limes (Stuttgart 1976) 52p.
Baatz, D., Limeskastell Saalburg (Saalburg 1991) 32p.
Birley, A.R. 'The economic effects of the Roman frontier policy' Roman West in the Third Century, A. King, M. Henic [eds.] Oxford: BAR Reports, 1981.; I.39-53.
Bowerstock, G.W., Roman Arabia. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard UP, 1983.
Bowman, A.K., 'The military occupation of Upper Egypt in the reign of Diocletian' Bulletin of the American society of papyrologists 15 (1978), 25-38.
Bowman, A.K., Life and letters on the Roman frontier (London 1994)
Braund, D. Rome and the friendly king: The character of the client-kingship. London: Croom & Helm, 1984.
Elton, H., Frontiers of the Roman empire (Indianapolis 1996).
Fentress, E.W.B. Numidia and the Roman Army: Social, economic and military aspects of a frontier zone. Oxford: B.A.R., 1979.
French, D.H. , Lightfoot, C.H. The eastern frontiers of the Roman empire. Oxford: BAR, 1989.
Gracey, M.H. The Roman Army in Syria, Judaea and Arabia. D. Phil. Dissertation, Oxford, 1981.
Gracey, M.H. 'The Armies of the Judaean Client Kings' in Freeman, P., Kennedy, D. [eds.] The Defence of the Roman and Byzantine East. Oxford: BAR, 1987: 311-323.
Johnson, A. Römische Kastelle. Mainz: 1987.
Kennedy, D. 'The military contribution of Syria to the Roman imperial army' in French, D.H., Lightfoot, C.S. [eds.] The Eastern Frontier of the Roman Empire Oxford: BAR, 1989: 235-246.
Kennedy, D., Riley, N.,D. Rome's Desert Frontier from the Air. London, 1990.
Mann, J.C. 'Frontiers of the Principate' ANRW II:1 (1975): 508-533.
Mann, J.C. 'Power, foce and the frontiers of the empire' JRS 69 (1979): 175-183.
Maxfield, V.A., Dobson, M.J. [eds.] Roman frontier studies, 1989. Oxford: B.A.R., 1990.
Millar, F. 'Emperors, frontiers and Roman foreign relations, 31 BC to AD 378' Britannia 13 1982: 1-23.
Millar, F. The Roman Near East, 31 BC -0 AD 337. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard UP, 1993.
Nicolle, D. Rome's enemies V: The desert frontier [Men at Arms #243] London: Osprey, 1991.
Parker, S.T. 'The nature of Rome's Arabian Frontier' Roman Frontier Studies 1989: 498-504
Petrikovits, H. von 'Fortifications in the north-western Roman Empire' JRS 61 (1971): 178-218.
Potter, D. 'Empty areas and Roman frontier policy' AJPh 113 (1992): 269-274.
Potter, S.D. 'Emperors, their borders and their neighbours' The Romanm Army in the East Kennedy [ed.] :49-68.
Roth, J. The logistics of the Roman army in the Jewish war. PhD dissertation, Columbia University, 1990.
Sherk, R.K. 'Roman geographical exploration and military maps' ANRW II:1 (1974): 534-562.
Southern, P. 'Signals versus illumination on Roman frontiers' Britannia 21 (1990): 233-242.
Speidel, M.P. 'The Roman Army in Judaea under the Procurators' Ancient Society 13/14 (1982-3): 233-240.
Speidel, M.P. 'The road to Dumata and the frontier policy of the praetensione colligare' Historia 36 (1987) 213-221.
Süsskind, G. Der römische Limes in Deutschland. Stuttgart: 1992.
Wheeler, E.L. 'The laxity of the Syrian legions' in D.L. Kennedy et al. [eds.] The Roman army in the east. 229-276.

C. Bandits and Uprisings

Bowerstock, G.W. 'The mechanics of subversion in the Roman provinces' Opposition et resistance a l'empire d'Auguste a Trajan. [Entretiens sur l'antiquité classique, 33] Geneva: Fondation Hardt, 1987. 291-317.
Brunt, P.A., 'Did Imperial Rome disarm her subjects ?' Phoenix 29 (1975), 260-270.
Brunt, P.A., 'Tacitus on the Batavian revolt' Roman imperial themes (Oxford 1990), 33-52.
Dyson, S.L. 'Native revolts in the Roman empire' Historia 20 1971: 239-274.
Dyson, S.L. 'Native revolt patterns in the Roman empire' ANRW II:3:138-175.
Goodman, M. The ruling class of Judaea: The origins of the Jewish revolt against Rome AD 66- 70. Cambridge: CUP, 1987.
Isaac, B. 'Bandits in Judaea and Arabia' Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 88 1984:171- 203.
MacMullen, R. "How to Revolt in the Roman Empire." Rivista storica dell' Anticha 15 (1985), 67-76.


Adams, C.E.P., 'Supplying the Roman Army: O.Petr. 245' Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 109 (1995): 119-124.
Adams, J.P. The Logistics of the Roman Imperial Army. Ph.D. Dissertation, Yale University 1976.
Anderson, J. D., Roman Military Supply in North-East England: An Analysis of and Alternative to the Piecebridge Formula Oxford 1992 [BAR 224].
Breeze, D. J., "The Logistics of Agricola's Final Campaign," Talanta 18-19 1986-7 7-28.
Donaldson, G.H., 'Signalling communications and the Roman imperial army' Britannia 19 (1989), 349-356.
Erdkamp, P., 'The corn supply of the Roman armies during the third and second centuries BC' Historia 44 (1995), 168-191.
Gabriel, R., Metz, K.S. From Sumer to Rome: The Military Capabilities of Ancient Armies. New York: Greenwood Press, 1991.
Hyland, A., Training the Roman Cavalry: From Arrian's Tactica Alan Sutton 1993 .
Hyland, A., Equus: The Horse in the Roman World London 1990.
Marsden, E.W. Greek and Roman Artillery. Historical Development Oxford 1969.
Peddie, J. The Roman War Machine London: Alan Sutton, 1994


Absil, M. and Y. Le Bohec, 'La liberation des soldats romains sous le Haut- Empire' Latomus 44 (1985), 855-870.
Ausbüttel, F.M., 'Zur rechtlichen Lage der römischen Militärvereine' Hermes 113 (1985), 500- 505.
Birley, E., 'Veterans of the Roman army in Britain and elsewhere' Ancient Society 13-14 (1982- 1983), 265-276.
Campbell, B., 'The marriage of soldiers under the Empire' JRS 68 (1978), 153-166.
Cavaignac, E., 'Les six ans de service et la guerre d'Espagne' Revue Philologique 25 (1951), 169- 177.
Dahlheim, W., 'Die Armee eines Weltreiches: der römische Soldat und sein Verhältnis zu Staat und Gesellschaft' Klio 74 (1992), 197-220.
Davies, R., Service in the Roman army (Edinburgh 1989)
Hänggi, R., Hartmann, M. et al. Das Liebesleben römischer Soldaten. Ohne Recht auf Frau und Kind? Brugg: 1991.
Levick, B., Roman Colonies in Southern Asia Minor Oxford 1967 56-91.
MacMullen, R., Soldier and Civilian in the Later Roman Empire 1963 7-15, 98-118.
Mirkovic, M. 'Die römische Soldatenehe und Soldatenstand' ZPE 40 (1980): 259-271.
Mann, J.C., "Honesta missio and the Brigetio Table," Hermes 81 1953 496ff.
Rebuffat, R. 'Via militaris' Latomus 46 (1987): 52-67.
Rowell, H. T., "The honesta missio from the Numeri of the Roman Imperial Army" Yale Classical Studies 6 1939 71-108.
Sarnowski, T. 'Zum religiösen Leben der niedermoesischen Vexillationen auf der Südkrim' Historia 48 (1998): 321-341.
Smith, R.E., "The Army Reforms of Septimius Severus," Historia 12 1972 481-500.
Speidel, M.P. 'The soldiers' servants' Ancient Society 20 (1989): 239-248.
Steinwender, T. 'Altersklassen und reguläre Dienstzeit de Legionärs' Philologus 47 (1889): 285- 305.
Van Buren, A. W., "Some Families formed by Roman Soldiers and Veterans," Hommages à A. Grenier Bruxelles 1962 1564-1570. [Collection Latomus, 58].
Welles, C. B., "The immunitas of the Roman Legionaries in Egypt,"Journal of Roman Studies 28 1938 41-49.
Welles, C. B., "The Population of Roman Dura," Studies in Roman Economic and Social History in Honor of Allan Chester Johnson Princeton 1951; reprinted 1969 251-274.
Wells, C., "The Impact of the Augustan Campaigns on Germany," Assimilation et résistance à la culture gréco-romaine dans le monde ancien. Travaux du VIe Congrès International d' études classiques Madrid, Septembre 1974 Paris 1976 421-431.
Wierschowski, L. 'Kriegdienstverwiegerung im römischen Reich' Ancient Society 26 (1995): 2-5- 239.
Wilmans, J.C. 'Zur Rangordnung der römischen Militärärtze' ZPE 69 (1987): 177-179.


A. Religion

Birley, A. "The Religion of the Roman Army," Aufstieg und Niedergang der Römischen Welt II.16.2 1978 1506-1541.
Domaszewski, A. von, Aufsätze zur römischen Heeresgeschichte Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft 1972 [five long articles reprinted: incl. "Fahnen", "Religion", "Truppensold", "Principia", "Phlangen Alexanders...und Caesars Legionen"]
Irby-Massie, G.L. 'The Roman army and the cult of Campestres' ZPE 113 (1996): 293-300.
Stoll, O. 'Offizier und Gentleman: der römische Offizer als Kultfunktionär' Klio 80 (1998): 134- 162.

B. Social and Military Values

Brunt, P.A. Roman Imperial Themes. Oxford: OUP, 1990.
Garnsey, P.D.A., Whittaker, C.R. [eds.] Imperialism in the ancient world. Cambridge: CUP. 1978.
Ehlers, W. 'Triumphus' Real-Encylopädie der klassischen Altertumsiwssenschaft Pauly, A., Wissowa, G., Kroll, W [eds.] II.7: 494-511.
Künzl, E. Der römische Triumph;Siegesfeiern im antiken Rom. Munich: C.H. Beck, 1988.
Lendon, J.E. The empire of honour: The art of government in the Roman world. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990.
Lintott, A. 'What was the imperium romanum?' Greece and Rome 28 1981: 53-67.
MacMullen, R. 'Personal power in the Roman empire' AJP 107 (1986): 512-524.
Rich, J. 'Fear, greed and glory: The causes of Roman war-making in the middle Republic' in War and society in the Roman world Rich et al [eds.] 38-68.
Woolf, G. 'Roman peace' in Rich et al. [eds.] War and society in the Roman world, 171-194.
Versnel, H.S. Triumphus: Am inquiry into the origin, development and meaning of the Roman triumph. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1976.

C. Perceptions of Geography

Angeli Bertellini, M.G. Roma e l'Oriente. Rome: L'Erma di Brettschneider, 1976.
Arnaud, P. 'Limage du globe dans le monde romain' Mélanges de l'École française de Rome 96 1984: 53-116.
Austin, N.J.E., Rankov, N. Exploratio: Military and political intelligence in the Roman World. London: Routledge, 1995.
Bekker-Nielsen, T. 'Terra incognita: The subjective geography of the Roman empire' Studies in ancient history and numismatics presented to Rudi Thomsen. Aarhus: AUP, 1988: 148- 161.
Dabrowa, E. 'The frontier in Syria in the First century AD' in Freeman and Kennedy [eds.] The defence of the Roman and Byzantine East. I; 93-108.
Derow, P.S. 'Polybius, Rome and the East' Journal of Roman Studies 69 1979: 1-15.
Dilke, O. Greek and Roman Maps. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1985.
Dodgeon, M.H., Lieu, S.C. The Roman Eastern Frontier and the Persian Wars AD 226-363. London: Routledge, 1991.
Hanson, W.S., Keppie, L.J.F. Roman frontier studies 1979. Oxford: B.A.R., 1980.
Hartley, J.B., Woodward, D. The History of Cartography vol. 1. Chicago: CUP, 1987.
Nicolet, C. Space, geography and politics in the early Roman empire. Ann Arbor: U Mich. Press, 1991.
Nutton, V. 'The beneficial ideology' in Imperialism in the ancient world. P.D.A. Garnsey et al. 209-221.
Romm, J.S. The edges of the earth in ancient thought. Princeton: PUP, 1992.
Talbert, R.J.A. 'Rome's empire and beyond: The spatial aspect' in E. Hermon [ed.] Gouvernants et gouvernees dans l'imperium romanum Quebec: UQP, 1991: 215-223.

C. Communication

Adams, J.P., "Trajan and Macedonian Highways," Ancient Macedonia. Fifth International Symposium Volume I Thessaloniki: Institute for Balkan Studies 1993 29-39.
Amit, M. 'Les moyens de communication et la defense de l'empire romain' La parola del passato 20 1965: 207-222.
Koeppel, G.M. 'A military itinerarium on the column of Trajan: Scene L' Mitteilungen der deutschen archäologischen Institut. 87 1980: 301-306.
Mitchell, S. 'Requisitioned transport in the Roman empire' Journal of Roman Studies 66 1976: 106-131.
Ramsay, A.M. 'The speed of the Roman imperial post' Journal of Roman Studies 15 1925 60- 74.

D. The Enemy

Connolly, P. Hannibal and the Enemies of Rome. London: Macmillan Educational Press, 1978.
Albert, S. Bellum iustum. Kallmunz: Lassleben, 1980.
Balsdon, J.V.P. Romans and aliens. London: Duckworth, 1979.
Bell, B.M. 'The contribution of Julius Caesar to the vocabulary of ethnography' Latomus 54 1995: 753-767.
Freeman, P., Kennedy, D. [eds.] The Defence of the Roman and Byzantine East. Oxford: B.A.R. 1986.
Gruen, E.S. 'Augustus and the ideology of war and peace' in Winkes, R. [ed.] The Age of Augustus. Providence, R.I.: Brown University Press, 1985:51-72.
Lindner, P. 'Nomadism, horses and the Huns'Past and Present 92 (1981): 3-19.
MacDowell, S. Germanic Warrior 236-568 AD. London: Osprey, 1996.
Mattern, Susan P., Rome and the Enemy: Imperial Strategy in the Principate. Berkeley: U of Cal Press, 1999.
Newark, T. The Barbarians. Hong Kong, 1998.
Nicolle, D. Rome's enemies V: The desert frontier [Men at Arms #243] London: Osprey, 1991.
Schmitt, O. 'Die Bucellari' Tyche 9 (1994): 147-174.
Shadrake, D, & S. Barbarian Warriors. London: Osprey, 1997.
Wilcox, P. Rome's enemies I-III London: Osprey, 1982-1986.

E. Trajan's Column

Lepper. F.A., Frere, S. Trajan's column. Gloucester, UK: Alan Sutton, 1988.
Packer, J.E. The forum of Trajan in Rome 3 vols. Berkeley: UCal Press, 1997.
Richmond, I. Trajan's army on Trajan's column. London: British School at Rome, 1982.
Rossi, L. Trajan's column and the Dacian wars. London: Thames & Hudson, 1971.
Settis, S. et al. La colonna Traiana. Turin: G. Einaudi, 1988.

F. Social Values

Campbell, J.B. 'Who were the viri militares?' Journal of Roman Studies 65 1975:11-31.
MacMullen, R. 'Personal power in the Roman empire' American Journal of Philology 107 1986: 512-524.
Oakley, S.P. 'Single combat in Rome' Classical Quarterly 35 (1985): 392-410.
Storch, R.H. 'The 'absolutist' theology of victory: Its place in the late empire' Classica et Medievalia 29 1968: 197-206.
van Wees, H. Status warriors: War, violence and society in Homer and history. Amsterdam: J.C. Gieben, 1992.
Wiedemann, T. 'Single combat and being Roman' Ancient Society 27 (1996): 91-103.


Nischer, N.C. 'The army reforms of Diocletian and Constantine' JRS 13 (1923): 1-55.
Pflaum, H.G. 'Zur Reform des Kaisers Gallienus' Historia 25 (1976): 109-117.
Sander, E. 'Die Reform des römischen Heerwesens durch Julius Caesar' Historische Zeitschrift 179 (1955): 225-254.
Smith, R.E. 'The Army Reforms of Septimus Severus' Historia 21 (1972): 481-499.


Ehrhardt, C.T.H.R., 'Speeches before battle?' Historia 42 (1993), 120-121.
Guittard, C. 'Les sources littéraires et historiques concernant l'armament du l´gionaire romain' in A. Adam. R. Rouvert eds.] Guerre et sociétés en Itallië Paris: 1986: 51-64.
Hansen, M.H. 'The battle exhortation in ancient historiography' Historia 42 (1993): 161-180.
Millner, N.P. Vegetius: epitome of military science. Liverpool: UL Press, 1993.
Ogilvie, R.M. et al. [eds.] De vita Agricolae by Cornelius Tactitus. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1967.
Pelling, C.B.R. 'Caesar's battle descriptions and the defeat of Ariovistus' Latomus 40 (1981): 741-766.
Rawson, E. 'Literary sources for the pre-Marian army' Papers of the British School in Rome (1971): 13-31.
Watson, G.R. 'Documentation in the roman Army' ANRW II:1 (1974) 493-507.


A. The Third Century Crisis, and Later

Alföldy, G., "The Third century Crisis as seen by Contemporaries," Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies 15 1974 89-111.
Anderson, J.G.C., "The Genesis of Diocletian's Provincial Reorganization," Journal of Roman Studies 22 1932 24-32.
Brauer, G.C., The Age of the Soldier Emperors. Imperial Rome, A.D. 244-284 Park Ridge NJ: Noyes Press 1975.
Crump, G., "Ammianus and the late Roman Army," Historia 23 1972 91-103.
DeBlois, L., The Policy of the Emperor Gallienus Leiden: Brill 1976
Ferrill, A., The Fall of the Roman Empire: The Military Explanation London: Thames and Hudson 1986.
Grant, M., The Fall of the Roman Empire: A Reappraisal Annenberg School of Communications, Radnor PA 1976 pp. 60-90.
MacMullen, R., Roman Government's Response to Crisis, A.D. 235-337 New Haven: Yale 1976.
Magie, D., Roman Rule in Asia Minor I Princeton 1950, pp. 688-723 and II 1951, pp. 1557-1578 "From Decay to Chaos".
Millar, F., "P. Herennius Dexippus: The Greek World and the Third Century Invasions," Journal of Roman Studies 59 1969 12-29.
Oliva, P., Pannonia and the Onset of Crisis in the Roman Empire Prague 1962.
Remondon, R., "Problèmes militaires en Egypte et dans l' Empire à la fin du IV siècle," Revue historique 213 1955 21-38.
Salmon, E. T., "The Roman Army and the Disintegration of the Empire," Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada 3rd series, 52 1958 43-60.
Southern P. and K. R. Dixon, The Late Roman Army New Haven: Yale1996

B. The Roman Navy

Some Letters written by Roman soldiers recruits to the Fleet.
Ducin, Ancient Navigation and Shipbuilding Lublin Poland.
Kienast, D., Untersuchungen zu den Kriegsflotten der römischen Kaiserzeit Bonn 1968.
Lehmann-Hartleben, K., Die antiken Hafenanlagen des Mittelmeeres Leipzig 1923 [Klio, Beiheft 14].
Meiggs, R., Roman Ostia Oxford 1973.
Starr, C. G. Jr. The Roman Imperial Navy, 31 B.C.-A.D. 324 Cornell 1941; 2nd ed. Cambridge 1960
Starr, C. G. Jr. The Influence of Sea Power on Ancient History Oxford 1989.
Thiel, J.H. A History of Roman Sea Power in Republican Times Amsterdam 1954.

C. Not recommended

Sander, E. 'Die Germanisierung des römischen Heeres' Historische Zeitschrift 160 (1939): 1-34. This is a relic of history. Note the date, the journal and the title!