BAILEYS MODEL OF DISENGAGEMENT
F.G. Bailey, The Kingdom of Individuals: An Essay on Social Obligation
and Self-Respect Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1993
1. Disengagement always involves a conflict of moralities,
a potential argument about where ones duty lies, and
the conflict is usually shaped as obligation to ones self
and duties owed to the organization.
2. The interaction which gives rise to disengagement is always
between unequals. In other words, from one perspective,
one partner has no hope of winning.
3. The organization is not only superior in power to the group,
but also, by definition, intent upon its exploitation.
4. Disengagement is not the same as open protest; it is either
covert, concealed from the eyes of the authorities, or else it
is camouflaged so that even though the authorities suspect
its presence, they cannot easily take action against it.
5. Disengagers are never social reformers with a conscious
political intent, or dissidents armed with programmes of
their own. The disengagers intention is not to change the
status quo, but to exploit it as it is and to preserve a private space where the organization cannot intrude.
6. Disengagement, to be successful, develops a mind which
can operate beyond the thought limits of the larger
organization, and creates an active, independent mind to
present issues or problems.
PROPOSED DISENGAGEMENT PHENOMENA
Bruce Baker, The Nature of Disengagement from Political Authority,
[African Studies Centre, Occasional Papers, no. 3]. Coventry: School of International Studies & Law, 1997, p. 28.
1. MIGRATION to escape a hostile power
2. ANTI-ESTABLISHMENT ACTIVITY, a rejection of legitimacy and/or attempted overthrow
a. organized and armed conflict/rebellion
b. spontaneous violence/riots/sabotage
c. passive resistance
3. LOCALISED AUTONOMY
b. theocratic communites
c. urban no-go areas
4. COUNTER-CULTURE MOVEMENTS - spiritual exit by traditional, secular or religious groups
5. ECONOMIC SEPARATION from political control
a. from supervised production/distribution (nonformal economy)
b. from recoreded production/distribution (informal economy)
6. SELECTIVE EVASION OF CONTROL
a. abuse of tax/benefits system
b. opportunism (shirking, foot dragging, false compliance, feigned ignorance).
7. ABANDONMENT OF CULTURE
a. of civic values (pursuit of public good at the expense of the
purely individual ends)
b. of civic virtues (interpersonal trust, respect, tolerance)
8. NON-PARTICIPATION IN FORMAL POLITICS
a. no part in voting
b. no part in petitions, demonstrations, personal contacts
9. NON-PARTICIPATION IN INFORMAL POLITICS
a. do not follow public affairs
b. non membership in associations with political content or